The map Typus Orbis Terrarum, issued with Vol. This portrait is taken from the first edition of his Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, published at Antwerp in Gerardus Mercator was born in Rupelmonde, in Flanders, in He speedily became famous as a map engraver and instrument maker, and in he published his Map of the World, on the projection now called after him.
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The projection, however, in his map is only approximately correct, and the true tables for this projection and the mathematical principles on which they are founded were first discovered and published by Edward Wright in Mercator died in , just before the publication of the last part of his great Atlas. His Atlas was ready before that of Ortelius, but with a noble generosity Mercator delayed its publication, to give his friend a chance of fame. Jodocus Hondius was born in Ghent in He worked as an engraver, and went to London on the outbreak of the War in the Netherlands, and while there became the friend of Edward Wright who showed him the MS.
Wright accuses him of having appropriated his calculations and used them for his own maps. From G. Braun and F. This plan shows Moscow before its burning by the Crim Tartars in Made by Anthony Jenkinson in to illustrate his travels through Russia and Persia. This map was included in the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum of Abraham Ortelius, , and is taken from that edition. He was educated at Stamford, Grantham, and St. He was created Baron Burghley in The portrait here reproduced is from the print by William Rogers in the British Museum. Lord Howard of Effingham was born in and succeeded his father in In he was made Lord High Admiral of England and as such he commanded the fleet against the Armada.
He was created Earl of Nottingham for his services against the Armada and in the Cadiz expedition of In he resigned office in favour of Buckingham. He died on 14th December, She was about tons burden, with a length of keel of about feet and a beam of about When in commission she carried a crew of about men of whom were soldiers and 32 gunners. This reproduction is from the engraving in the Print Department of the British Museum.
From these charts the Armada tapestries were designed for Lord Howard of Effingham. This chart shows the position of the fleets on the morning of 21st July, The dotted line to the south from Plymouth shows the course taken by the English main fleet across the front of the Spaniards until they had weathered the Armada, while the dotted line zig-zagged along the English coast shows the beat to windward by a small squadron of eight English ships, which joined the main fleet in the first attack on the Armada.
Son of an Italian merchant. As a gentleman-adventurer, he fitted out a ship at his own cost, and commanded her in the Channel against the Armada. He was afterwards charged with the custody of Don Alonzo de Luzon, and three other important Spanish prisoners, until an exchange was arranged.
He died on 6th July, , and at his death the Queen owed him nearly L29,, equal to about L, of our money. This was never fully paid. The various types of vessels engaged are well shown. This shows the final battle off Gravelines on 29th July. The squadron in mid-channel probably represents Howard rejoining the main fleet with his pinnaces after the galliasse was abandoned Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy , Vol. She was blown up in Tobermory Harbour where she had put in to water — tradition says by a member of the Clan Maclean — in August The diameter of the bore at the muzzle is an inch and seven-eighths, and the ball, if of iron, would weigh about 7 ozs.
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The breech block with its square shaped handle is shown above the gun. The block was kept in position by a wedge inserted behind it. The square hole shown in the engraving was to allow the escape of gas. The Compasses reproduced full size are also of bronze, and have the head of each leg formed into a semicircle, so that by their cross action they could easily be extended or contracted as required with one hand. Despite their long immersion these relics are perfectly preserved: they are illustrated here by permission of the Duke of Argyll and of the Syndicate on whose behalf Captain William Burns is conducting the dredging operations in Tobermory Bay.
From the engraving by J. Houbraken of the picture formerly in the possession of Sir Robert Worsley, Bart. He saw service in the Netherlands in —6 and distinguished himself at the battle of Zutphen. In he commanded the forces despatched to help Henry IV. On 8th February, , he attempted to raise the city of London against Elizabeth.
On the 19th he was found guilty of high treason and on the 25 th February, , was beheaded in the Tower. From the print after the original by Henry Cornelius Vroom. From a very rare Dutch engraving.
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The importance of Tyre as a seaport is shown by the number and variety of vessels anchored before it. This English edition is almost the first book with English made maps. The portrait here reproduced is from the original at Hornby Castle, by permission of the Duke of Leeds. He had, in , come prominently before the Order by his defeat of an Egyptian fleet in the Levant.
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On his election as Grand Master he hastily collected stores and munitions of war in France, and embarked at Marseilles for Rhodes, already threatened by the Turks. Off Nice fire broke out on his ship, and the crew were only prevented from deserting her by his exertions. He died on 21st August, Solyman the Magnificent, fourth Emperor of the Turks, succeeded to the throne on the death of his father Selim L in , being then about twenty-eight years old. During his reign the area of the Turkish Empire was extended by his conquests of the greater part of Hungary, large portions of Armenia and Persia, and the whole of Northern Africa, except Morocco.
He besieged Vienna in but was repulsed. He died on the 4th September, , while besieging Sigeth or Szigeth on the Drave. This manuscript was composed in a. This and the two succeeding illustrations are taken from the Architectura Navalis of Joseph Furttenbach, Ulm, Reproduced by permission of Prince Trivulzio from the original in his collection at Milan. Sir Francis Walsingham was born about His knowledge of foreign affairs brought him under the notice of Burghley, and through his foreign friends and correspondents he obtained much valuable secret intelligence.
In he went on an embassy to Paris, and later in that year was appointed resident ambassador at the French Court. In December, , Walsingham was appointed one of the principal Secretaries of State, and in was knighted. He was one of the Commissioners who tried Mary, Queen of Scots, and it was largely on the secret information obtained by him that she was condemned. Walsingham died in London on 6th April, , and was buried privately the next night in St.
The portrait here reproduced is from the engraving in the British Museum of the original formerly in the collection of the Duke of Dorset. In Babilon hee spent some parte of his time, and the rest of his earthly pilgrimage hee spent in London, and was Alderman of that Famous Cittie. He came to the throne in , when between thirteen and fourteen years old, and reigned until In addition to being a great conqueror, he was a wise and enlightened ruler.
The present picture represents him as he appeared towards the middle of his reign, when at the height of his power, and after he had founded his new religion. It is reproduced from an original in an album of miniatures and calligraphic specimens of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, preserved in the Department of Oriental MSS. From the copy in the British Museum of G. This chart, drawn by T. Hood, and engraved by Ryther in , is reproduced from the original in a volume of miscellaneous papers entitled Sea Tracts, Vol.
It gives the coast lines from the latitude of the Orkneys to the Cape Verde Islands. Specimens of his charts are very rare. The family produced several other seamen, of whom William Fenner, Viceadmiral under Drake and Norris in the Portugal voyage see p. On his return from the voyage to Guinea in , Fenner traded with the Low Countries. It is reproduced by permission from the original preserved in the Public Record Office.
He is allied with mighte Prynces and Dukes in the Straits of whome besides the forces in his owne domynyons he is to have greate aide shortlie: and his provisions of breade and wynes are so greate as will suffice men a wholle yeere, which, if they be not ympeached before they joyne, wilbe verie perillous, Our entente therfore is by gods helpe to intercepte their meetinges by all possible meanes we maye, which I hope shall have such a good successe as shall tende to thadvauncement of gods glorie, the savetie of her highnes royall person, the quyett of her countrie, and thannoyaunce of the Enemie.
I leave the report of dyvers prisonars to the bearer herof and pray pardon for not writtyng with my owne hand, I am overcom with businesses. I dare not a most writ unto your honour of the great forces we hear the K. It was in this expedition that Borough was put under arrest by Drake for insubordination, and afterwards court-martialled and condemned to death. He was, however, subsequently pardoned. He succeeded to the title in January — In he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, and took his M.
He is also said to have studied mathematics and geography at Oxford. In he made an expedition to the Azores and suffered great hardships on the return home see p. Cumberland died in London on 30th October Sir Richard Grenville or Greynville belonged to a Cornish family and was born about He was a cousin of Sir Walter Raleigh. In he sat in Parliament as member for Cornwall. He made his first sea voyage in May when he commanded a fleet of seven ships intended for the settlement of Virginia. In he was engaged in planning measures of defence for the western counties in anticipation of the Spanish Armada.
Linschoten was born at Haarlem about , but it was from Enkhuizen, whither his parents had removed, that in Linschoten set out on the travels which have made his name famous. He first went to Spain where he stayed six years; next he joined the Spanish fleet for the East Indies and was at Goa in when John Newbery and Ralph Fitch arrived as prisoners from Ormuz.
His account of their escape is given in Volume V page of this edition. In —5 he accompanied Barents in his voyages to the Arctic regions.
This, the only known map by Sir Humphrey Gilbert now in existence, is taken from the copy in the British Museum of his Discourse of a Discoverie of a new passage to Cathaia published in London in Frobisher was born about He made his first voyage, to Guinea, in In he was employed in sea service oiF the coast of Ireland, where he attracted the notice of Sir Humphrey Gilbert.
In —78 he was occupied in his voyages in search of the North-west passage. Imprinted at London by Henry Bynnyman, Synce which tyme I have contynued these xxxii yeres in travaile of body and study of mynde, following my vocation in the trade of merchandise, whereof I have spent the first xv yeres in contynuall travaile of body, passing through allmost all the cuntrees of Christianity. Namely out of England, into Scotland, Ireland, Flanders, Germany, France, Spayne, Italy and Greece, both by land and by sea, not without great labors, cares, dangers and expenses of mony incident; having had the charge as capitayn of a great ship of burden tuns, by the space of more then iii yeres in dyvers voyages in the Levant seas, wherewithall I returned into England.
In which travailes, besides the knowledge of all those famous common languages of those cuntries, I sought allso for the knowledge of the state of all their common wealths, chiefly in all matters apperteining to the traffique of merchants.
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And the rest of my tyme I have spent in England under the happy raigne of the Queenes Majestie now being.