Barr quotes him as having said at a meeting with his readers: 10 This point is made and elaborated on by Clute and Nicholls in their The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction.
Pierre Leprohon_The Italian Cinema
AIDS is a science fiction scenario. The decay of the ozone layer is a science fiction scenario. Both these scenarios are, I think, the result of technology. Science fiction has always been interested in the influence of new technologies on human society and cyberpunk is an extreme case of this interest. In their introduction to Edging into the Future.
Science Fiction and Contemporary Cultural Transformation, Veronica Hollinger and Joan Gordon write: Science fiction, which has conventionally used the future to comment on the present and the alien to comment on the familiar, provides an ideal site from which to explore the liminal, the verge, the frontier, the edge, over which all these postings hover. More and more writers are turning to science fiction as a narrative discourse through which to map the metamorphoses of present reality.
The postmodernist feeling that we already live in the future made it a privileged discourse scholars often turn to in search of metaphors. As I have shown, cyberpunk, which is an extreme case of science fiction, depicts such a future-in-present culture in a radical way — namely, by commenting on the issues currently discussed in cultural studies: high-tech society, commodity culture, and simulacra.
Bibliography Barr , M. Patrick Parrinder, Liverpool. Clute, J. Gibson, W. New York. Gordon, J. Science Fiction and Contemporary Cultural Transformation, ed. Hollinger, V. Jameson, F. Parrinder, P. Shippey, T. Sterling, B. Suvin, D.
Francesca Romana Coluzzi
Because of the romantic and sentimental story-line the movie enjoyed tremendous success with audiences all over the world. Yet eventually she grows into a much more ambiguous participant in the triangle drama that befalls her mother and the two men who meet her on the beach on the cloudy day of her arrival: Alisdair Stewart who has literally bought Ada for a wife from her father, and the uncouth George Baines who becomes first her reluctant admirer, and then her passionate lover.
In fact, even though she refuses to talk, she communicates with the external world by means of written messages: she writes, and above all she plays the piano, deeply impressing others by her music, commanding, refusing, or imploring with a force and persuasion much greater than those of anyone else around her.
She seems to both embody and perform the yet-inarticulate, the pre-semantic and pre-syntactic as parameters of the pre-symbolic, rather than contribute to the aesthetics of tranquility, balance and order induced out of disparate elements of chaotic nature.
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This singularity and liminality appear to especially attract the two males Ada is brought into contact with in her exotic adventure, and, as the critics emphasize, this attraction clearly effeminates both of her partners. With Baines the case is more obvious since, in the first place, he affiliates himself willingly with the natives always effeminized in the colonial symbolic : he sports a Maori tattoo on his face and body, talks their language and lives with a local woman.
All this situates him as a liminal shepherd figure in the pastoral landscape zone between wilderness and civilization Marx The latter aspect, however, does not pertain to 1 Quotations from the original source come exclusively from Jane Campion, Kate Pullinger, The Piano, New York: Hyperion, , marked in the text by the letter P.
Here, however, enters the motif of the prosthetic body, an artificial, metal finger that Baines procures for his beloved. Yet the perspective we are invited to assume as viewers of the fi lm, together with the fi lm director, is that of the postmodern end of the twentieth century, and if we look at Ada in the context of the early s idea of the female cyborg, her story acquires a deeper and more resonant meaning, just as her complexity as a construct of female artistry becomes more challenging.
The tendency to combine the image of femaleness with technology initially appeared with the second Industrial Revolution at the turn of the nineteenth century Goody This role domesticates her but does not turn her into a common housewife: due to her functioning as a music teacher in the community she becomes an economic agent herself by, as it were, selling her aesthetic know-how.
Yet her transformation underscored by the dramatic scene of sinking the piano from the rebellious romantic artist into an economically active member of a middle-class family does not necessarily mean her aesthetic disempowerment, if, again, we look at her through postmodern eyes.
Richter, ed. Braidotti, R. Brooks, P. Campion, J. Australia, France, New Zealand, min. Goody, A. Garrard, G. Coupe, ed.
Haraway, D. Kemp, J. Johnson, B. Kostelanetz, R. Lyotard, J. Marx, L. The idea of a brutal, inhuman, animalistic, strong and violent male beast as opposed to a gentle, human, weak, submissive and female Beauty has stirred imagination for centuries. The two forces, set poles apart, create the ground for a perfect relationship — where one side complements the other, where the role models are clearly prescribed.
Both of them: the Beast, imprisoned in its beastiness, and Beauty, enslaved by her gentleness can only smile at the cameras as they proceed in their happily ever after. It has become immensely popular in postmodern literature to rewrite oppressive fairy tales in order to liberate the characters. The purpose of this paper is to show how two authors, namely Angela Carter and Andrzej Sapkowski, transform the classical fairy tale Beauty and the Beast and challenge both the characters and the plot.
The article will focus on showing the binary oppositions present in the fairy tale, which both texts undermine. The central question however is going to be, to what extent the new stories manage to overcome the binary oppositions and what in fact they offer instead. This paper will start however with the very Beast himself.
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The traditionally encoded image of the Beast presents a hairy creature, with scary voice, big head and big teeth, piercing eyes, inhuman hands and paws instead of feet. The animal which it resembles can be different — either a noble feline or a bear, or even a mixture of more than one of forest creatures. Invariably however, it is large, dangerous, violent, strong and dominant.
It threatens the father of the girl and forces him to give his daughter away.
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The beast is unnatural and animalistic. The analysis of the two contemporary fairy tales shows a strikingly different image of the Beast.
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What is more, it is emphasised that the beast is definitely not human and, while trying to fit the human realm, it is perceived by the girl as artificial and two-dimensional. It is only in the realm of animals that the girl starts to perceive the beast as amazingly graceful, not a monster but a mere animal. The beast is simply a caricature — a parody: The creature was humanoid, dressed in shabby but high quality clothes adorned with stylish but quite worthless ornaments.
This humanoid shape reached no higher than the soiled ruff of his jacket, however; above it there towered a huge head of a bear, fuzzy and adorned by massive ears, a pair of fierce eyes, and a terrifying maw fi lled with crooked fangs and a flame-like tongue. The Beast therefore, is deconstructed by means of parody. It is a compilation of so many animals that it cannot be taken seriously. Moreover, it is stressed that in fact the Beast is very human inside — it is made explicit when the Witchman points out that being able to touch a silver tray and his magical medallion, he cannot be a real monster.
Additionally, the Beast has a human name — Nivellen, which sets him even more in the world of human culture. In the presentation of the two beasts we can notice two strategies of deconstructing the binary oppositions. It is crucial to stress the fact that the Beast is not deprived of its humanity as it never had any — it is simply of different nature — that of an animal. The picture of the Beast sketched in the story is of a graceful and proud animal, which however becomes a grotesque caricature, like a trained dog on his hind legs, when it tries to enter the world of humans.
Both authors portray the Beast as quite content with its fate — to be a human turns out not to be so desirable, quite the opposite is true: being a beast has many assets. Nivellen can seduce girls more easily as they find him very attractive. Additionally, due to his looks, he feels safe as nobody dares to attack him.
Therefore, the binary opposition of beast — human, where being a beast is a curse, starts to dissolve. The question remains what happens with Beauty, situated on the other pole. Well, she definitely is not a gentle, fragile, submissive female, enslaved by the patriarchal oppressive culture. She is given a voice — she narrates her own story — which already makes her a master of her own narrative. At the same time however, she decides to benefit form the situation. She will not let her father sell her as she will do it herself and hence, she will gain control over the situation.
She will not let the Beast determine the rules of the game — the game is going to be played on her terms. If she cannot quit the game she will win it. She rejects the role of an automaton. The girl opposes her destiny — she writes her own story — she becomes a tiger — she discovers her own sexuality and rejects the female role.
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Since it is her female body, flesh, which condemned her to be meat and victim she gets rid of it, substituting it with fur. It is not the beast — who got civilised by the Victorian lady, it is an aristocratic girl who was transformed into a beast. Beauty does not want to fit into the paradigm of victim — aggressor. She is not to be Sadeian Justine and she consciously chooses the role of Juliette.