Stress – notwendiges Übel oder selbstgemachte Pein? (German Edition)

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Especially at work we are tending more and more to be stressed. Deadlines, hectic, constant accessibility and modern communication techniques are only one possible explanation. Another is certainly the changing world of work of physical labor to activities with increasing emotional and cognitive demands. It is undisputed that the outlined changes in work can hardly be reversed. But it is even more important to identify the changing or optionally also newly developing strains since more and more people feeling permanently on or even beyond their breaking point.

Negative effects of prolonged stress are internal unrest, sleeping problems and mood swings, which can also cause serious health problems in the longer term.

How to Avoid Occupational Stress at Work

This is the reason why the World Health Organization considers that stress is one of the biggest health risks of the 21st Century. Stress at work affects not only the health and quality of life of individuals but also harms businesses and the entire economy because stress is often the starting point for physical and mental diseases that substantially reduces the power of the affected employees.

According to latest figures the Federal Statistical Office estimates the medical costs of mental diseases in at around 29 billion euros in Germany. Therefore, not only employees but also employers and government should have an intrinsically useful interest in this subject. This assignment will discuss the different ways how to avoid occupational stress at work.

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Therefore it will provide fundamental knowledge about what is stress, how stress is created and what impact has stress. Furthermore this assignment will show how to approach stress properly. Also this work will demonstrate how the biggest German rail way company the DB AG is dealing with this important topic. For that work no primary data was gathered, the entire work is based on secondary data as the scope of this assignment does not allow for any explorative approaches, interviews or surveys. The necessary information for the work that were previously scattered published or accessible will be combined, analysed and interpreted by the author.

The sources of secondary data are collected form books and sources in the world-wide-web. In the first part of this work the fundaments of stress will be introduced to get an understanding about the topic stress. Beginning with a description about the best known and most frequently used models over the risk and opportunities of stress followed by the symptoms and consequences of chronic stress. The second part is focusing on particularities of occupational stress. Therefore it will be analyzed the cause of stress at work and demonstrates different way how to avoid stress at work.

In the case study about the Deutsche Bahn it will be analyzed how the biggest German rail way company is dealing with the topic stress at work. Afterword a conclusion will be drawn before finalizing with an outlook based on the thoughts about the handling of stress in the future.

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Since stress originally - so in human history - was triggered mostly by physical threats, our body has developed a stress response program, which provided him with energy in stressful situations that helped him to escape or fight. These energies were very helpful e. This ancient and very successful program also runs today when we experience stress. And in my soul, in your analogies! The thoughts of a hungry princess, The boredom of a sailor in the desert, A blaring, metallic music at the windows of the incurably ill.

Go to the coolest corners! One would say a woman who disappeared one harvest day, There are horse drivers in the courtyard of the hospital. In the distance passes a deer hunter who has become a nurse Examine it in the moonlight. Oh, nothing is in its right place. One would say a crazy woman before judges, A warship under full sail on a canal Some night birds on some lilies The tolling of a bell toward noontime there under the glass bells!

When will we have rain And snow and wind inside the hothouse! Alexandre Deubner est le fils du P. Sur Alexandre Deubner, voir p.

Wie entsteht Übelkeit

Sur ces divisions juridictionnelles, voir plus loin p. Lettre du 1er octobre Archives de Chevetogne. Bonne Presse, Lettre du 24 juillet Lettre de L. Henein et M. In the section below, the example of depression shall be elaborated in detail. For this purpose, an overview shall be presented of the variables that are associated with the onset of a depressive disorder. When inspecting these variables, some clear points of overlap with the stress concept arise. The risk factors that are reviewed are based on a project designing a prevention program for depression among adolescents Veltman, Ruiter and Hosman, Because one of the psychological outcomes of stress is lowered self-esteem and self-confidence Kahn and Byosiere, , stress could lead to a greater risk for depression.

Because stress can be thought of as aversive environmental pressure, this risk factor has considerable overlap with the concept of stress itself. Again, this provides a link by which stress could be a cause of psychopathology. Because stressful situations are often uncontrollable e. Because social interactions at work can be a considerable source of stress, a problematic and stressful social climate e. This calls to mind the fact that chronic stress can have a more serious influence than do life events Kessler, Price and Wortman, Work related stress seems to fall more in the category of chronic stress and has therefore a high potential of triggering depressive patterns.

To summarise the chapter so far, some possible outcomes of the stressor-strain process were covered. These outcomes could be divided into three broad categories, namely physiological, psychological and behavioural consequences of stress. Physiological outcomes included aversive changes in cardiovascular symptoms, biochemical outcomes and gastrointestinal symptoms. The second category of reactions was made up by behavioural changes. Examples in this category include alcoholism and absenteeism, and can result in very costly consequences.

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The third main group of stress outcomes was constituted by psychological variables. Finally, stress is linked with outcomes of psychopathology such as anxiety, irritability and depression. In the case of depression, an analysis of risk factors was presented that indicated an important role that stress can play in the development of this mental illness.

When considering the outcomes of the stress process, it is clear that stress can give rise to very serious problems in the individual. These outcomes have been reviewed in the previous sections 1. Undesirable changes in the spheres of biology, psychology and behaviour do not exist in a vacuum, however. Not only stressors are located in an environment; so are stress outcomes.

Individual outcomes, such as discussed above, have broader societal-economical consequences. Below, the most important ones are reviewed. In the form of societal costs, stress can have a very destructive impact on the larger framework of society. When people bec ome depressed, for example, they can end up in clinics, or even commit suicide. Also, when people have to quit their job because they are unable to perform any longer , they are robbed of a very important source of meaning and satisfaction.

These people lack the access to many resources and do not enjoy the socialising experience that work can be. For the working population that remains, jobs are becoming increasingly stressed for reasons for this development, see 1. Time constraints seriously cut back some very important possibilities to share experiences and activities with relatives and friends.

The family is one area that especially suffers from these developments. Here, a s o-called spill over effect of work stress is possible.

When both partners vent out their problems on each other, serious problems for the relationship can result Dipboye, Smith and Howell, This process is especially striking in the case of dual career stress. As more and more couples both have ambitious career plans, it is becoming incredibly difficult to harmonise work and private life.

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